Here we will consider techniques for expanding the summary that is basic conclusion.


But two words of advice have been in order. First, regardless of how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of the placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It’s the statement that is last reader will encounter before turning from your own work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often desire to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a greater standard of diction. Soaring drama and rhetoric in a conclusion are fine so long as they don’t unbalance the paper and call awareness of themselves. Having labored hours that write my paper are long your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a feeling of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply.

Statement of the Subject’s Significance

One of the most effective how to conclude a paper is always to discuss the larger importance of everything you have written, providing readers with an additional reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When utilizing this plan, you move through the concern that is specific of paper towards the broader concerns associated with reader’s world. Often, you will need certainly to choose among a selection of significances: A paper regarding the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel because it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of their impact on sexual mores, population, or even the church. But don’t overwhelm the importance to your reader of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused.

The paragraphs that are following a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn:

. . . Thus, the hybrids described and developed by Shull 75 years back have finally dominated U.S. corn production.

The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the common yields of corn within the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the value that is additional the farmer is now several billion dollars per year.

The prosperity of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as for instance sorghum hybrids, a feed that is major crop in arid areas of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent associated with land dedicated to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which will be reported to yield 20 percent significantly more than the greatest varieties. And several superior kinds of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, as well as other vegetables are hybrids. Today almost all corn manufactured in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods for the plant kingdom has arrived a model for feeding the world. 10

The first sentence for this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull’s processes for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is followed by a discussion that is two-paragraph the importance of Shull’s research for feeding the planet.

Call for Further Research

When you look at the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) in addition to ways in which the topic in mind should be further explored. In the event that you raise questions that you turn to others to resolve, however, be sure you understand that the research you are calling for has not recently been conducted.

This next conclusion comes from a sociological report regarding the keeping of elderly women and men in assisted living facilities.

Thus, our study shows a correlation involving the keeping of elderly citizens in nursing facilities additionally the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months placement that is following. What the research have not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical rather than emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes when this occurs within their lives if they grow less able to take care of themselves – which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be as a result of causes that are physical. But the stress that is emotional of put into a home, away from family and in a breeding ground that confirms the patient’s view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate – if you don’t itself be a primary reason behind – the in-patient’s rapid loss of abilities. Further research is required to clarify the connection between depression and particular ailments that are physical these impact the skills for the elderly in nursing facilities. There is doubt that is little information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more beneficial services.

Notice how this call for further study locates the writer in a community that is large of on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions which have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the sentence that is first of paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation.

The goal of your paper may be to review an issue or controversy also to discuss factors that are contributing. This kind of a full case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to provide an answer in line with the knowledge you’ve gained while conducting research. In case the solution is to be studied seriously, your knowledge must certanly be amply demonstrated in the human body for the paper.

. . . The problem that is major college sports today just isn’t commercialism – it’s the exploitation of athletes as well as the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.

Many universities are currently deriving benefits that are substantial sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn through the poorest parts of America’s population. This is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to observe that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.

Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four several years of athletic eligibility, and may include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper care that is medical. At institutions where in fact the profits are particularly large (such as for example Texas A &M, that could afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a , scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition year. The main thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding job that is full-time. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers.

Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to engage their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America’s poor and minorities is certainly not, over time, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the assistance from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what exactly is rightly his – and hers – a fair share associated with the revenue produced by their hard work. 11

In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one single sentence: “the main problem in college sports today just isn’t commercialism – it is the exploitation of athletes additionally the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards.” In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a recommendation that is general that “educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens” be accountable for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, plus in the ultimate paragraph, he anticipates resistance to your proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and time for the typical point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal.

An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the true point of which in a conclusion is always to shed light on your subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to an account (“Too many people today reside in Plato’s cave . . .”); using the anecdote, you really retell the storyline. The anecdote allows readers to find for themselves the value of a reference to some other source – an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity.